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Command Line List and Reference
The complete list of possible commands is quite large. Collected here is a selection of those that I believe are likely to be the most applicable to home PC use.

Many of the commands listed below are also discussed in more detail elsewhere on this site as is indicated by the link "details here". Most commands have switches that are not given in the table. For more information, open a command prompt and enter "commandname /?" (without quotes). Detailed information about these commands and a larger list is available at this Microsoft reference. These commands are in Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7.

Selected list of commands
Command Description Example
assoc Displays or modifies file name extension associations. Used alone, displays a list of all the current file name associations details here
at Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer at a specified time and date. Requires the Schedule service. Superseded by schtasks  
attrib Configures file attributes read only, hidden, system details here
bootcfg Used to repair or edit the boot.ini file details here
cd or chdir Displays the name of the current directory or changes the current folder cd folderpath
chkdsk Checks hard drives for errors. With switches,does repairs. details here
cls Clears the screen cls
copy Copies a file from one location to another copy somefile somefolder
del Deletes one or more files details here
dir Displays a list of a folder's files and subfolders details here
diskpart Disk management shell. A suite of various commands details here
driverquery Displays a list of all installed device drivers and their properties. Requires administrator privileges. (Not available in Windows XP Home) Example here
echo Used to display a message or to turn off/on messages in batch scripts echo message
exit Exits batch script or current command control exit
fc Compares two files and displays the differences between them fc file1 file2
find Searches for a text string in a file or files. Can also be used with output from another command.  
findstr Searches for text string patterns in a file using regular expressions 
for Runs a specified command for each item in a set details here
fsutil Displays and configures certain file system properties. A suite of various commands details here
ftype Displays or modifies file types used in file name extension associations details here
getmac Returns the media access control (MAC) address for your network card getmac
goto Directs the Windows command interpreter to a labeled line in a batch program details here
if Performs conditional processing in batch programs details here
ipconfig Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings details here
md or mkdir Creates a directory (folder) or subdirectory (subfolder) details here
more Displays one screen of output at a time. Used with another command that has extensive output details here
move Moves a file from one folder to another details here
net A suite of various networking and service commands details here
netsh Network services shell . Complex suite of commands. details here
netstat Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, statistics for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols details here
path Sets the command path in the PATH environment variable, which is the set of directories used to search for executable files details here
pathping Provides information about network performance and conditions at intermediate hops between a source and destination details here
pause Used in batch scripts pause
ping Checks connectivity to other networked computers, routers, or Internet sites details here
popd, pushd Changes the directory being referenced in a command prompt. Pushd changes the directory and stores the previous directory. Popd changes the current directory to the directory stored by the pushd command pushd somefolder
powercfg Manages the power settings such as hibernation. Has numerous switches  
reg Adds, changes, and displays registry entries. A suite of various commands details here
rd or rmdir Deletes a directory (folder) details here
ren or rename Changes the name of a file or a set of files details here
sc Used to obtain information about services and to configure them. A suite of various commands details here
schtasks Schedules commands and programs to run periodically or at a specific time  
set Displays, sets, or removes environment variables details here and also here
sfc System file checker scans and verifies the versions of all protected system files sfc /scannow
shutdown Shuts down or restarts a computer details here
sort Alphabetizes strings from a text file or the output of a command.  
start Starts an application or opens a new command window details here
subst Associates a folder with a drive letter details here
systeminfo Displays detailed configuration information about a computer and its operating system systeminfo | more
taskkill Ends one or more tasks or processes details here
tasklist Displays a list of applications and services with their Process ID (PID) for all tasks running details here
tree Graphically displays the directory structure of a folder or drive tree somefolder
typeDisplays the contents of a text file type somefile.txt
vssadmin For administering and configuring volume shadow copies details here
xcopy Powerful command with many switches for copying and backing up files and folders details here